• Samiyah Tasleem
  • Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi
  • Saadat Ali Khan
  • Khursheed Hashimi


Background: Honey is a gift of nature, principally identified and valued to possess antimicrobial andanti-inflammatory activity and has been used as a natural remedy of wounds since ancient times. Theobjectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey against micro-organisms, toformulate a honey ointment and to evaluate the efficacy of such ointment by conducting clinical trialson skin wound infection. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at Department ofPharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi and Out-patient Department ofDermatology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from November 2009 to October 2010. Theantimicrobial activity of Pakistani floral sources (Trachysperm copticum, Acacia nilotica species indica,Zizyphus) honey samples was investigated by disc diffusion method against freshly isolated woundinfecting bacteria (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candidaalbicans), and Staphylococci aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9022, Escherichiacoli ATCC 25922, Candida albican ATCC 15146. An ointment containing 20% active antimicrobialhoney was formulated. The efficacy of such ointment was evaluated by passing thought clinical trials.A total number of 27 patients (23 skin wound infection, and 4 diabetic foot ulcer) were involved in thestudy. Thin layer of newly formulated honey ointment on gauze were applied two to three times per daytill complete healing. Results: In microbiological assay the honey samples were found to exhibit a verypromising antimicrobial activity against all the micro-organisms tested. In clinical trial very significantresults (99.15%) healing was observed in skin wound infections cases with mean healing time of 5.86(2–20) days, and 95% diabetic foot ulcers healed with the mean healing time of 20 (8–40) days.Conclusion: Newly formulated ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey is very effectiveand alternative low-cost product for the treatment of wound infections.Keyword: antimicrobial activity, honey ointment, wound infection, diabetic foot ulcer


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