• Muhammad Khan
  • Muhammad Alamgir Khan
  • Faizania Shabbir
  • Tausif Ahmed Rajput


Background: Allergic rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory conditions of airways sharing common pathophysiology. The two disorders have similar cellular responses, with different symptoms based on the differences in the physical structures involved. Studies have shown that allergic rhinitis has a major impact on asthma morbidity and that treating allergic rhinitis may also impact asthma control. The objective of this study was to determine association of allergic rhinitis with gender and asthma. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients with allergic rhinitis and equal number of patients without allergic rhinitis were included. Patients were excluded if they were smokers or if they had respiratory infection within the month preceding the study. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed on history, nasal smear and blood complete picture. In both groups, patients having asthma, pre-diagnosed by the physician were isolated and their frequency was calculated. Results: Ninety-two male and 108 female patients with mean age 30.72±12.58 were included in the study. Odds ratio for allergic rhinitis patients and asthmatics was 5.05 (p<0.05). Association of allergic rhinitis with gender was also statistically significant (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed predictability of allergic rhinitis from asthma at p<0.05. Conclusion: Allergic rhinitis is significantly associated with gender and asthma.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, asthma, united airways disease hypothesis


Sala-Cunill A, Bartra J, Dalmau G, Tella R, Botey E, Raga E, et al. Prevalence of asthma and severity of allergic rhinitis comparing 2 perennial allergens: house dust mites and Parietaria judaica pollen. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2013;23(3):145–51.

Valovirta E, Pawankar R. Survey on the impact of comorbid allergic rhinitis in patients with asthma. BMC Pulm Med 2006;6(Suppl 1):S3.

Tug E, Ozbey U, Tug T, Yuce H. Relationship between the IL-12B promoter polymorphism and allergic rhinitis, familial asthma, serum total IgE, and eosinophil level in asthma patients. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2009;19(1):21–6.

Rimmer J, Ruhno JW. 6: Rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease. Med J Aust 2006;185(10):565–71.

Bunnag C, Jareoncharsri P, Tantilipikorn P, Vichyanond P, Pawankar R. Epidemiology and current status of allergic rhinitis and asthma in Thailand –ARIA Asia-Pacific Workshop report. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2009;27(1):79–86.

Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas D, Martin Caballero JM, Garcia-Marcos Alvarez L. [Association between atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma in schoolchildren aged 13–14 years old]. An Pediatr (Barc) 2004;60(3):236–42. [Article in Spanish]

Jang AS, Kim SH, Kim TB, Park HW, Kim SH, Chang YS, et al. Impact of atopy on asthma and allergic rhinitis in the cohort for reality and evolution of adult asthma in Korea. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2013;5(3):143–9.

Pinart M, Benet M, Annesi-Maesano I, von Berg A, Berdel D, Carlsen KC, et al. Comorbidity of eczema, rhinitis, and asthma in IgE-sensitised and non-IgE-sensitised children in MeDALL: a population-based cohort study. The lancet Respiratory medicine 2014;2(2):131–40.

Wagener AH, Zwinderman AH, Luiten S, Fokkens WJ, Bel EH, Sterk PJ, et al. The impact of allergic rhinitis and asthma on human nasal and bronchial epithelial gene expression. PLoS One 2013;8(11):e80257.

Hyrkas H, Jaakkola MS, Ikaheimo TM, Hugg TT, Jaakkola JJ. Asthma and allergic rhinitis increase respiratory symptoms in cold weather among young adults. Respir Med 2014;108(1):63–70.

Tajiri T, Niimi A, Matsumoto H, Ito I, Oguma T, Otsuka K, et al. Prevalence and Clinical Relevance of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Classic Asthma and Cough Variant Asthma. Respiration 2014;87(3):211–8.

Morjaria JB, Caruso M, Rosalia E, Russo C, Polosa R. Preventing progression of allergic rhinitis to asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2014;14(2):412.

Wang PP, Zhang YM, Zhang J. [Development of allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma: 4–5 year follow-up study of preschool children]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2013;48(11):886–90. [Article in Chinese]

Mooney T. Asthma and allergic rhinitis. Nurs Stand 2013;27(35):59.

Elkholy MM, Khedr MH, Halawa A, Elbaramawy A. Impact of allergic rhinitis on quality of life in patients with bronchial asthma. Int J Health Sci 2012;6(2):194–202.

Eifan AO, Calderon MA, Durham SR. Allergen immunotherapy for house dust mite: clinical efficacy and immunological mechanisms in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2013;13(11):1543–56.

Alsamarai AM, Alwan AM, Ahmad AH, Salih MA, Salih JA, Aldabagh MA, et al. The relationship between asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Iraqi population. Allergology international: official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology 2009;58(4):549–55.

Polosa R, Al-Delaimy WK, Russo C, Piccillo G, Sarva M. Greater risk of incident asthma cases in adults with allergic rhinitis and effect of allergen immunotherapy: a retrospective cohort study. Respir Res 2005;6:153.

Padilla J, Uceda M, Ziegler O, Lindo F, Herrera-Perez E, Huicho L. Association between allergic rhinitis and asthma control in Peruvian school children: a cross-sectional study. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:861213. doi: 10.1155/2013/861213.

Barrenas F, Andersson B, Cardell LO, Langston M, Mobini R, Perkins A, et al. Gender differences in inflammatory proteins and pathways in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Cytokine 2008;42(3):325–9.

Osman M, Hansell AL, Simpson CR, Hollowell J, Helms PJ. Gender-specific presentations for asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in primary care. Prim Care Respir J 2007;16(1):28–35.

Panzner P, Malkusova I, Vachova M, Liska M, Brodska P, Ruzickova O, et al. Bronchial inflammation in seasonal allergic rhinitis with or without asthma in relation to natural exposure to pollen allergens. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2013 Sep 25. pii: S0301–0546(13)00194–8. doi: 10.1016/j.aller.2013.06.009