Mir Hassan Khan, Mujahid Akbar, Jahangir A. Khan, S. Humayun Shah, Zakir Ullah


Urine of 11600 subjects of Hazara Division were analysed between October, 1989 and
November, 1990. Age range was 10-70 years. Physical, chemical and microscopic composition were
observed. Most of the samples were pale yellow, had a volume of 1- 1.5 1/24 hrs and few of them
were turbid. pH and specific gravity were found in the range of 5-8 and 1.018-1.026 respectively.
369 cases of albuminuria, 205 cases of glycosuria and 93 cases of ketonuria were detected.
Jaundice was detected only in few individuals. The abnormal leukocytes, RBC, Epithelial cells,
Amorphous urates, Calcium oxalate crystals and Uric acid crystals were found in less than 12%
subjects. Different types of casts observed were negligible.

Full Text:



Williams, D.L.; Nunn, R.F. and Marks, V. Scientific foundation of clinical Biochemistry Vol. 1

Analytical aspects, 1978

Adams, F. The Genuine work of Hippocrates. New York, William Wood and Co; 1886.

Keele, K.D. The evolution of clinical methods in medicine. Springfield, Illinois, Charles C Thomas,

Osman, A.A. Original papers of Richard Bright on renal disease. London, Oxford University

Press, 1937.

Shaheen, P.K. et al. Prevalence of diabetes in general population of District Abbottabad. Sent

for publication to PJMR vide letter No. PMRC/4-7/88-89/AMC/721 dated 26th March, 1989.

Relman, A.S. and Levinsky, N.G. Clinical examination of renal function. In strauss, M.B; and

Welt, L.G.(eds); Diseases of the kidney. Boston, Little Brown and Company,1971.

Webb, T; Rose, G. and Sehon, A. II. Biocolloids in normal human urine II. Physicochemical

and immunochemical characteristics. Canad. J. Biochem.Physiol, 1958; 36:1167.

Boyce, W.H; Gravy, F.K. and Norflet, C.M. Proteins and other biocolloids of urine in health and in

calculous disease. J. Clin. Invest 1954; 33:1287

Henry, R.J. Clinical Chemistry: Principles and technics, New York Harper and Row, 1964.

Loudon, I.S. and Greenhalgh, G.P. Urinary Tract infection in general practice. Lancet, 1962;2:1246.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] [ayubmed.edu.pk]