Mohammad Naeem, Muhammad Adil, Syed Hussain Abbas, Muhammad Zia-ul-Islam Khan, Syeda Maria Naz, Ayasha Khan, Muhammad Usman Khan


Background: Poliomyelitis mainly affects children under five years of age. Pakistan is one of the few
countries where wild polio is still endemic. The purpose of this study was to find out the coverage rate
and factors associated with the failure of OPV in urban and rural areas of Peshawar. Methods: This
cross-sectional study was conducted in Peshawar. Data was collected through random sampling in
Peshawar University, Peshawar Saddar, Hashtnagri, Naway Kalay and Pawaka from 9th to 19th June
2010. A questionnaire was used to interview parents of 548 children, aged four years and below, about
demographics, OPV vaccination status, reasons for missed vaccination and views on immunization and
EPI staff. Forty workers from immunization staff were also interviewed through a separate
questionnaire to find out factors associated with low OPV coverage. Chi-square test was used for
statistical testing and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Only 64.2% children were
completely vaccinated, 13.3 % not vaccinated at all, and 22.4% were incompletely vaccinated. The
reasons for not vaccinating were lack of awareness (23.8%), family problem/mother busy (20.8%),
centre too far (21.3%), wrong ideas (10.2%), fear of reaction (7.6%), child ill (5.6%) and miscellaneous
causes (10.6%). The problems faced by the EPI staff were lack of awareness among people (32.5%),
load shedding (20.0%), poor transport facilities (10.0%), unavailability of vaccines (10.0%) and
insecurity (10.0%). Conclusion: Low vaccination coverage in Peshawar is mainly due to low
awareness among people, poor economic conditions and poor salaries, insecurity and transport
problems faced by the immunization staff.
Keywords: OPV, Immunization, EPI, Polio

Full Text:



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