EVALUATION OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS IN AYURVEDIC SYRUPS SOLD IN LOCAL MARKETS OF HAZARA, PAKISTAN

Bibi Hajra, Iftikhar Qayum, Shaukat Orakzai, Fida Hussain, Uzma Faryal, Aurangzeb .

Abstract


Background: Herbal and Ayurvedic preparations, widely used in Pakistanand the developing world, present serious risk of heavy metal toxicity related to their medicinal content and prolonged use by patients. The objective of this study was to find out the concentration of heavy metals in Herbal & Ayurvedic liquid preparations commonly used for treatment of different diseases, from local markets of Hazara. Methods: The cross sectional survey of traditional herbal & Ayurvedic medicine shops included ten liquid preparations selected from local shops of Mansehra and Abbottabad after interviewing the shopkeepers; so as to select the most commonly sold preparations along with their indications. All samples were analysed on standard Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative study of toxic heavy metals (Mercury, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Manganese and Arsenic). Results: Toxic levels of Mercury were present in seven syrups, i.e., (Kashneeze, Akseer e Pachas, Tankar, Sharbat e folad, Urosinal, Akseer e Jigar and Amrat dhara) while Arsenic was present only in Urosinal. Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Lead were present in permissible limits in all syrups. Conclusion: Mercury and Arsenic are present in local Herbal & Ayurvedic liquid preparations far beyond the permissible limits as proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for health drugs while the rest of metals, i.e., Zinc, Manganese, and Iron are within the therapeutic limits.

Keywords: Herbal bottle preparations, Heavy metal toxicity, Mercury, Arsenic, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Quality control

Full Text:

PDF

References


Silano M, De Vincenzi M, De Vincenzi A, Silano V. The new European legislation on traditional herbal medicines: main features and perspectives. Fitoterapia 2004;75(2):107–16

Saxe TG. Toxicity of medicinal herbal preparations. Am Fam Phys 1987;5:135–42.

Shamala G. Concern over safety of herbal remedies. The Sun 2001: p.15.

Ahmad SS, Hussain SZ. Ethno medicinal survey of plants from salt range (Kallar Kahar) of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 2008;40(3):1005–11.

Chan K. Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines. Chemosphere 2003;52:1361.

Tonguc O. Determination of Heavy metals in some moss species around thermic power stations. Turk J Biol 1998;28:171–80.

Brearley RL, Forsythe AM. Lead poisoning from Aphrodisiacs: potential hazard in immigrants. Br Med J 1978;23-30;2(6154):1748–9.

Samara S. Heavy metal toxicity. (Internet article). Updated May 6, 2011. Cited on: October 13, 2011. Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814960-overview

Kalra YP, Maynard DG, Radford FG. Microwave digestion of tree foliage for multi-media analysis. Can J Res 1989;19:981–5.

Hina B, Rizwani GH, Naseem S. Determination of toxic metals in some herbal drugs through drugs through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pak J Pharm Sci 2011;24(3):353–8.

Martin S, Griswold W. Human Health Effects of Heavy Metals. Manhattan: Center for Hazardous Substance Research. 2009 Contract No.: 15.

Patrick L. Mercury Toxicity and Antioxidants: part 1: Role of Glutathione and Alpha Lipoic Acid in the Treatment of Mercury Toxicity. Altern Med Rev 2002:7(6):456–71.

Ozuah PO. Mercury poisoning. Curr Probl Pediatr 2000;30:91–9.

Qureshi IH, Zaidi JH, Fatima I, Waheed S. Trace elements nutritional status of some Pakistan food items. In: Rahman MA (Ed.) Biochem for development: Proceeding of 6th federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemistry Symposium No. 171, Karachi, Pakistan 1987;2-4 Nov. Lahore: Pakistan Society of Biochemists: 1988. pp. 201-12.

Islam E, Yang X, He Z, Mahmood Q. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2007;8(1):1–13.

Amster E, Tiwary A, Schenker M.B. Case report: potential Arsenic toxicosis secondary to herbal kelp supplement. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(4):606–8.

Frisbie SH, Mitchell EJ, Mastera LJ, Maynard DM, Yusuf AZ, Siddiq MY et al. Public health strategies for western Bangladesh that address Arsenic, Manganese, Uranium, and other toxic elements in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:410–6.

Saeed M, Muhammad N, Khan H, Khan SA. Analysis of toxic heavy metals in branded Pakistani herbal products. J Chem Soc Pak 2010;32(4):471–5.

Samandralwar DL, Garg AN. Minor and trace elemental determination in the Indian herbal and other medicinal preparations. Biol Trace Ele Res 1996;54(2):113–21.

Rai V, Kakkar P, Singh J, Misra C, Kumar S, Mehrotra S. Toxic metals and organochlorine pesticides residue in single herbal drugs used in important ayurvedic formulations. Environ Monit Assess 2007;143(1-3):273–7. .

Saper RB, Kales SN, Paquin J, Burns MJ, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB et al. Heavy metal content of ayurvedic herbal medicine products. JAMA 2004;292(23):2868–73.

Miller AL. Dimercaptosuccinic (DMSA), a non-toxic, water soluble treatment for heavy metal toxicity. Altern Med Rev 1998:3(3):200–7.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] [ayubmed.edu.pk]